1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 stimulates activator protein 1 DNA-binding activity by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Ras/MEK/extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1-dependent increase in c-Fos, Fra1, and c-Jun expression in human keratinocytes
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1alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 added to human keratinocytes increases differentiation through an activation of the transcription factor activator protein 1. We have previously reported that the 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-induced increase of activator protein 1 DNA binding activity is mediated by a protein kinase C-independent mechanism. The purpose of this study was to investigate further the mechanisms by which 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 modulates activator protein 1 DNA binding activity in cultured normal human keratinocytes. Western blotting experiments revealed that 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 caused a rapid and transient activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases, extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1. 1alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 also enhanced the expression of the activator protein 1 subunits, c-Fos, Fra1, and c-Jun as determined by northern and western blotting. The 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-induced activator protein 1 DNA binding activity was completely blocked by the MEK inhibitor PD 98059 indicating that the MEK/extracellular signal regulated kinase pathway is involved in the activation of activator protein 1. Transfection experiments showed that 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 also increased the activator protein 1-dependent transactivation, which was completely blocked by expression of a dominant negative Ras, suggesting that the 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-induced activator protein 1 activity involves Ras-dependent signaling. Furthermore, preincubation of the keratinocytes with the specific phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors, Wortmannin and LY294002, demonstrated that the 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-induced activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 required phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity. Finally, preincubation of keratinocytes with a polyclonal antibody against the membrane receptor annexin II, blocked the 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-induced activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1. Taken together, our results indicate that 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, via binding to the membrane receptor annexin II, induces activation of the phos-phatidylinositol 3-kinase/Ras/MEK/extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 signal transduction pathway resulting in increased expression of c-Fos, Fra1, and c-Jun, and subsequently increased activator protein 1 DNA binding activity and gene transcription.
|Journal||Journal of Investigative Dermatology|
|Number of pages||9|
|Publication status||Published - 2003|
Keywords: 1-Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase; Adult; Annexin A2; Antibodies; Calcitriol; Calcium Channel Agonists; Cells, Cultured; Gene Expression; Humans; JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; Keratinocytes; MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 1; MAP Kinase Signaling System; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; Phosphorylation; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun; RNA, Messenger; Transcription Factor AP-1; ras Proteins