Epigenetic Regulation of Driver Genes in Testicular Tumorigenesis
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In testicular germ cell tumor type II (TGCT), a seminoma subtype expresses an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) panel with four upregulated genes, OCT4/POU5F1, SOX17, KLF4, and MYC, and embryonal carcinoma (EC) has four upregulated genes, OCT4/POU5F1, SOX2, LIN28, and NANOG. The EC panel can reprogram cells into iPSC, and both iPSC and EC can differentiate into teratoma. This review summarizes the literature on epigenetic regulation of the genes. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as methylations of cytosines on the DNA string and methylations and acetylations of histone 3 lysines, regulate expression of these driver genes between the TGCT subtypes. In TGCT, the driver genes contribute to well-known clinical characteristics and the driver genes are also important for aggressive subtypes of many other malignancies. In conclusion, epigenetic regulation of the driver genes are important for TGCT and for oncology in general.
|Journal||International Journal of Molecular Sciences|
|Number of pages||28|
|Publication status||Published - 2023|
© 2023 by the authors.
- differentiation, epigenetics, LIN28, NANOG, POU5F1, SOX2, testis cancer