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Hypotonic shock mediation by p38 MAPK, JNK, PKC, FAK, OSR1 and SPAK in osmosensing chloride secreting cells of killifish opercular epithelium

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W. S. Marshall, Carlo Gunnar Ossum, Else Kay Hoffmann

Hypotonic shock rapidly inhibits Cl- secretion by chloride cells, an effect that is osmotic and not produced by NaCl-depleted isosmotic solutions, yet the mechanism for the inhibition and its recovery are not known. We exposed isolated opercular epithelia, mounted in Ussing chambers, to hypotonic shock in the presence of a variety of chemicals: a general protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor chelerythrine, Gö6976 that selectively blocks PKC{alpha} and ß subtypes, H-89 that blocks PKA, SB203580 that blocks p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), as well as serine/threonine protein phosphatase (PP1 and 2A) inhibitor okadaic acid, and finally tamoxifen, a blocker of volume-activated anion channels (VSOAC). Chelerythrine has no effect on hypotonic inhibition but blocked the recovery, indicating PKC involvement in stimulation. Gö6976 had little effect, suggesting that PKC{alpha} and PKCß subtypes are not involved. H-89 did not block hypotonic inhibition but decreased the recovery, indicating PKA may be involved in the recovery and overshoot (after restoration of isotonic conditions). SB203580 significantly enhanced the decrease in current by hypotonic shock, suggesting an inhibitory role of p38 MAPK in the hypotonic inhibition. Okadaic acid increased the steady state current, slowed the hypotonic inhibition but made the decrease in current larger; also the recovery and overshoot were completely blocked. Hypotonic stress rapidly and transiently increased phosphorylated p38 MAPK (pp38) MAPK (measured by western analysis) by eightfold at 5 min, then more slowly again to sevenfold at 60 min. Hypertonic shock slowly increased p38 by sevenfold at 60 min. Phosphorylated JNK kinase was increased by 40-50% by both hypotonic and hypertonic shock and was still elevated at 30 min in hypertonic medium. By immunoblot analysis it was found that the stress protein kinase (SPAK) and oxidation stress response kinase 1 (OSR1) were present in salt and freshwater acclimated fish with higher expression in freshwater. By immunocytochemistry, SPAK, OSR1 and phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (pFAK) were colocalized with NKCC at the basolateral membrane. The protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein (100 µmol l-1) inhibited Cl- secretion that was high, increased Cl- secretion that was low and reduced immunocytochemical staining for phosphorylated FAK. We present a model for rapid control of CFTR and NKCC in chloride cells that includes: (1) activation of NKCC and CFTR via cAMP/PKA, (2) activation of NKCC by PKC, myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), p38, OSR1 and SPAK, (3) deactivation of NKCC by hypotonic cell swelling, Ca2+ and an as yet unidentified protein phosphatase and (4) involvement of protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) acting on FAK to set levels of NKCC activity.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Experimental Biology
Issue number6
Pages (from-to)1063-1077
StatePublished - 2005

Bibliographical note

Key words: Fundulus heteroclitus, protein kinase, protein phosphatase, SB203580, regulatory volume decrease, okadaic acid, chelerythrine, NKCC1, Na+, K+, 2Cl- cotransport, gill epithelium

ID: 1093386