Leucoagaricus gongylophorus uses leaf-cutting ants to vector proteolytic enzymes towards new plant substrate

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Standard

Leucoagaricus gongylophorus uses leaf-cutting ants to vector proteolytic enzymes towards new plant substrate. / Kooij, Pepijn Wilhelmus; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Hoffmann, Daniel; Roepstorff, Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Schiøtt, Morten.

In: I S M E Journal, Vol. 8, 2014, p. 1032-1040.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Harvard

Kooij, PW, Rogowska-Wrzesinska, A, Hoffmann, D, Roepstorff, P, Boomsma, JJ & Schiøtt, M 2014, 'Leucoagaricus gongylophorus uses leaf-cutting ants to vector proteolytic enzymes towards new plant substrate', I S M E Journal, vol. 8, pp. 1032-1040. https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2013.231

APA

Kooij, P. W., Rogowska-Wrzesinska, A., Hoffmann, D., Roepstorff, P., Boomsma, J. J., & Schiøtt, M. (2014). Leucoagaricus gongylophorus uses leaf-cutting ants to vector proteolytic enzymes towards new plant substrate. I S M E Journal, 8, 1032-1040. https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2013.231

Vancouver

Kooij PW, Rogowska-Wrzesinska A, Hoffmann D, Roepstorff P, Boomsma JJ, Schiøtt M. Leucoagaricus gongylophorus uses leaf-cutting ants to vector proteolytic enzymes towards new plant substrate. I S M E Journal. 2014;8:1032-1040. https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2013.231

Author

Kooij, Pepijn Wilhelmus ; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina ; Hoffmann, Daniel ; Roepstorff, Peter ; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan ; Schiøtt, Morten. / Leucoagaricus gongylophorus uses leaf-cutting ants to vector proteolytic enzymes towards new plant substrate. In: I S M E Journal. 2014 ; Vol. 8. pp. 1032-1040.

Bibtex

@article{5233b034f9ae487fa73b55c0163aaf55,
title = "Leucoagaricus gongylophorus uses leaf-cutting ants to vector proteolytic enzymes towards new plant substrate",
abstract = "The mutualism between leaf-cutting ants and their fungal symbionts revolves around processing and inoculation of fresh leaf pulp in underground fungus gardens, mediated by ant fecal fluid deposited on the newly added plant substrate. As herbivorous feeding often implies that growth is nitrogen limited, we cloned and sequenced six fungal proteases found in the fecal fluid of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior and identified them as two metalloendoproteases, two serine proteases and two aspartic proteases. The metalloendoproteases and serine proteases showed significant activity in fecal fluid at pH values of 5–7, but the aspartic proteases were inactive across a pH range of 3–10. Protease activity disappeared when the ants were kept on a sugar water diet without fungus. Relative to normal mycelium, both metalloendoproteases, both serine proteases and one aspartic protease were upregulated in the gongylidia, specialized hyphal tips whose only known function is to provide food to the ants. These combined results indicate that the enzymes are derived from the ingested fungal tissues. We infer that the five proteases are likely to accelerate protein extraction from plant cells in the leaf pulp that the ants add to the fungus garden, but regulatory functions such as activation of proenzymes are also possible, particularly for the aspartic proteases that were present but without showing activity. The proteases had high sequence similarities to proteolytic enzymes of phytopathogenic fungi, consistent with previous indications of convergent evolution of decomposition enzymes in attine ant fungal symbionts and phytopathogenic fungi.",
keywords = "Faculty of Science, Acromyrmex echinatior, nutrition, mutualism, phytopathogens, proteases",
author = "Kooij, {Pepijn Wilhelmus} and Adelina Rogowska-Wrzesinska and Daniel Hoffmann and Peter Roepstorff and Boomsma, {Jacobus Jan} and Morten Schi{\o}tt",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.1038/ismej.2013.231",
language = "English",
volume = "8",
pages = "1032--1040",
journal = "I S M E Journal",
issn = "1751-7362",
publisher = "nature publishing group",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Leucoagaricus gongylophorus uses leaf-cutting ants to vector proteolytic enzymes towards new plant substrate

AU - Kooij, Pepijn Wilhelmus

AU - Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

AU - Hoffmann, Daniel

AU - Roepstorff, Peter

AU - Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

AU - Schiøtt, Morten

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - The mutualism between leaf-cutting ants and their fungal symbionts revolves around processing and inoculation of fresh leaf pulp in underground fungus gardens, mediated by ant fecal fluid deposited on the newly added plant substrate. As herbivorous feeding often implies that growth is nitrogen limited, we cloned and sequenced six fungal proteases found in the fecal fluid of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior and identified them as two metalloendoproteases, two serine proteases and two aspartic proteases. The metalloendoproteases and serine proteases showed significant activity in fecal fluid at pH values of 5–7, but the aspartic proteases were inactive across a pH range of 3–10. Protease activity disappeared when the ants were kept on a sugar water diet without fungus. Relative to normal mycelium, both metalloendoproteases, both serine proteases and one aspartic protease were upregulated in the gongylidia, specialized hyphal tips whose only known function is to provide food to the ants. These combined results indicate that the enzymes are derived from the ingested fungal tissues. We infer that the five proteases are likely to accelerate protein extraction from plant cells in the leaf pulp that the ants add to the fungus garden, but regulatory functions such as activation of proenzymes are also possible, particularly for the aspartic proteases that were present but without showing activity. The proteases had high sequence similarities to proteolytic enzymes of phytopathogenic fungi, consistent with previous indications of convergent evolution of decomposition enzymes in attine ant fungal symbionts and phytopathogenic fungi.

AB - The mutualism between leaf-cutting ants and their fungal symbionts revolves around processing and inoculation of fresh leaf pulp in underground fungus gardens, mediated by ant fecal fluid deposited on the newly added plant substrate. As herbivorous feeding often implies that growth is nitrogen limited, we cloned and sequenced six fungal proteases found in the fecal fluid of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior and identified them as two metalloendoproteases, two serine proteases and two aspartic proteases. The metalloendoproteases and serine proteases showed significant activity in fecal fluid at pH values of 5–7, but the aspartic proteases were inactive across a pH range of 3–10. Protease activity disappeared when the ants were kept on a sugar water diet without fungus. Relative to normal mycelium, both metalloendoproteases, both serine proteases and one aspartic protease were upregulated in the gongylidia, specialized hyphal tips whose only known function is to provide food to the ants. These combined results indicate that the enzymes are derived from the ingested fungal tissues. We infer that the five proteases are likely to accelerate protein extraction from plant cells in the leaf pulp that the ants add to the fungus garden, but regulatory functions such as activation of proenzymes are also possible, particularly for the aspartic proteases that were present but without showing activity. The proteases had high sequence similarities to proteolytic enzymes of phytopathogenic fungi, consistent with previous indications of convergent evolution of decomposition enzymes in attine ant fungal symbionts and phytopathogenic fungi.

KW - Faculty of Science

KW - Acromyrmex echinatior

KW - nutrition

KW - mutualism

KW - phytopathogens

KW - proteases

U2 - 10.1038/ismej.2013.231

DO - 10.1038/ismej.2013.231

M3 - Journal article

VL - 8

SP - 1032

EP - 1040

JO - I S M E Journal

JF - I S M E Journal

SN - 1751-7362

ER -

ID: 103767554