Plant autoimmunity - fresh insights into an old phenomenon

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The plant immune system is well equipped to ward off the attacks of different types of phytopathogens. It primarily relies on two types of immune sensors-plasma membrane-resident receptor-like kinases and intracellular nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat (NLRs) receptors that engage preferentially in pattern- and effector-triggered immunity, respectively. Delicate fine-tuning, in particular of the NLR-governed branch of immunity, is key to prevent inappropriate and deleterious activation of plant immune responses. Inadequate NLR allele constellations, such as in the case of hybrid incompatibility, and the misactivation of NLRs or the absence or modification of proteins guarded by these NLRs can result in the spontaneous initiation of plant defense responses and cell death-a phenomenon referred to as plant autoimmunity. Here, we review recent insights augmenting our mechanistic comprehension of plant autoimmunity. The recent findings broaden our understanding regarding hybrid incompatibility, unravel candidates for proteins likely guarded by NLRs and underline the necessity for the fine-tuning of NLR expression at various levels to avoid autoimmunity. We further present recently emerged tools to study plant autoimmunity and draw a cross-kingdom comparison to the role of NLRs in animal autoimmune conditions.

TidsskriftPlant Physiology
Udgave nummer3
Sider (fra-til)1419-1434
Antal sider16
StatusUdgivet - 2022

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© 2022 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

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