The neuromuscular system of the cyclostome bryozoan Crisia eburnea (Linnaeus, 1758)

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The cyclostome bryozoans constitute an old and divergent group of bryozoans, whose muscle and nervous systems are poorly known. The entire neuromuscular system of the cyclostome Crisia eburnea is here mapped with phalloidin, DAPI and antibodies directed against acetylated α-tubulin and serotonin. Innervation of most muscles as well as the ganglion of C. eburnea is described, and several new details are reported, for example, on the additional and branched ectodermal muscles of the cystid, the presence of subtentacular muscles, the retractor muscles being distinctly striated and the presence of an additional pair of lateroabfrontal nerves in the proximal part of the tentacles. The serotonin-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of C. eburnea shares many features with those of the other bryozoans studied so far, which probably reflects a common ancestry of the neural architecture. However, the nervous system shows somewhat less complexity compared to that of the sister clade, Eurystomata, and contains fewer cells and nerves compared to the cyclostome Cinctipora which has much larger zooids and more than eight tentacles. No interzooidal neural connections were found in C. eburnea, which is in agreement with the individual response of the zooids.

TidsskriftActa Zoologica
Udgave nummer2
Sider (fra-til)133-146
StatusUdgivet - 2020

ID: 211161594