Administration of vitamin E and C enhances immunological and biochemical responses against toxicity of silver nanoparticles in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)
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The aim of the current study was to evaluate the toxic effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) on biochemical biomarkers, immune responses, and the curative potential effects of vitamin C and E on grass carp. Fish (n = 420) with an average initial body weight of 8.045 ± 0.13 g were shifted to glass aquaria (36 x 18 x 18 inches, filled with 160-L tap water) in triplicates. Aquaria were randomly designated as A, B, C, D with alone Ag-NPs (Control (0), 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 mg/L) and E, F, G with Ag-NPs + Vit. C + Vit. E (0.25+0.25+0.25, 0.50+0.50+0.50, 0.75 +0.75+0.75 mg/L). NPs particles were administrated viz, oral and intravenous routes for 7 days. The results indicated that both routes had non-significant effect, but levels of Ag-NPs had significant effect. Treatments C, D and G showed significant decrease in levels of RBC, HGB and HCT except for WBC and NEUT levels, which significantly increased. ALT, ALP, AST, urea, and creatinine showed significant increase in activity in the C, D, and G groups. CAT, SOD decreased significantly in all Ag-NPs alone groups, while significantly increased with vitamin E and C. LYZ, TP, ALB, GLB showed significant low activity in the B, C, and D groups while significantly high activity in the E, F, and G groups. Cortisol, glucose and triglycerides showed significant increase in the B, C, and D groups, while E, F, and G groups showed significant low levels of triglycerides, COR, and GLU. Cholesterol level was same across all treatment groups. In conclusion, vitamin E and C as powerful antioxidants protect the fish against Ag-NPs except high dose level of 0.75mg/L, while 0.25mg/L of Ag-NPs was presumably safe for C. idella.
|Number of pages||21|
|Publication status||Published - 2023|
Copyright: © 2023 Iqbal et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.